The pathological features of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) that are most often studied through neurohistology include de-myelination, axonal degeneration and inflammation involving an immune reaction including high cellularity around vessels. NSA has processed both human and animal model brains and spinal cords in support of MS research.
Rodent Spinal Cords: Spinal cord tissue of animal models is commonly used in MS research. There are several approaches NSA employs in processing spinal cord tissue.
Human tissue: For processing human tissue, NSA leverages MultiBrain® Technology to process multiple tissues at one time or to process large intact areas of the human brain providing a unique opportunity to assess large contiguous cross- sections of tissue. Encasing the human tissue in gelatin (part of MultiBrain® Technology) provides significant benefit in overcoming physical integrity issues normally associated with human samples.
MS Endpoint: De-myelination
A variety of methods can be used to reveal myelin, which effectively exposes areas of de-myelination. The most common techniques employed by NSA include the Weil-myelin method and Solochrome method.
MS Endpoint: Inflammation
As with other disease models, inflammation markers such as Iba1 and GFAP can be useful indicators of perturbations in conjunction with other MS pathology, as seen below.
MS Endpoint: Axonal Degeneration
MS Endpoint: Cuffing
The presence of high cellularity around vessels that is a characteristic of MS pathology is often called cuffing, as seen around the large vessels in these adjacent sections.
Different stains provide different perspectives into the architecture of the MS lesions. For example, the margin of the plaque in the chronic plaque contains cells (microglia) rich in iron, while the corresponding zone in the acute plaques does not.